Prostate Cancer

Cancer starts when healthy cells in the prostate change and grow out of control, forming a tumor. This tumor can be benign or malignant; A malignant or cancerous tumor can grow or spread to other parts of the body.

What is prostate specific antigen (PSA)?

It is a protein produced by prostate cells that is used as a tumor marker. Finding high levels of this antigen in the blood could indicate the existence of a malignant tumor.

Some signs and symptoms can be:

  • Increased frequency of urination, even at night
  • Blood in urine or seminal fluid
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Pain or burning when urinating
  • Weak or interrupted urine flow
  • Discomfort or pain when sitting


Digital rectal examination, prostate antigen concentration, and transrectal ultrasound are valuable tools diagnoses to obtain evidence of prostate cancer, but the definitive diagnosis can only be made with a biopsy.


American Society of Clinical Oncology. Prostate Cancer: Introduction, 2018.Available at:

– American Society of Clinical Oncology. Signs and symptoms of prostate cancer. 2019.Available at: Medical Journal of Costa Rica and Central America LXXIII (620) 707 – 710, 2016

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